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Apr 2019

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At the click of the Law: Opportunities in Cyber Law

At the click of the Law: Opportunities in Cyber Law : Internet today is a necessity more than a privilege and so has been declared in the United Nations. The World Wide Web (www) or the internet, is an alternative universe. It is the virtual world where we exist, speak our minds with family and friends. It is also a space where details of financial and transactional details, sensitive documents, personal records and many other ‘properties’ are stored. But who’s there to protect it all? According to a recent the Internet And Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) report, India has more internet users than the total population of the US and has become the second largest country by the number of internet users after China with 354 million users actively using the net. While you may have signed petitions for Net Neutrality, worried about the big brother taking over our privacy on the internet or heard about various financial and banking frauds, how can you take a more proactive part in enhancing the cyber laws of India? Just 20 years ago, Indian was just waking up to the internet, just like many other countries in the world. Like a small baby, we are still learning the cause, effect and the various uses and misuses that are inherent to the age of internet. And to protect us from a few malicious causes and misuses of the internet, cyber law, the law meant for the internet came into being. Cyber is a word used to define the culture of virtual reality, information technology, etc. And the laws that protect these spaces – both from perpetrators and intruders are called Cyber Laws. Across the globe, these laws are in their nascent stage, growing along with the ever-expanding purview of information technology. A career in Cyber Law is an exciting one because it is a growing field. Every once in a while a new anomaly is found, and most of the days, it is fixed. While most laws deal with an actual, physical world and its rights, Cyber Law is just expanding to identify the internet world and its rights there.   India and Rising Cyber Crime  In India the Information Technology Act, the first cyber law act was introduced in 2000. According to National Crime Record Bureau reports, there has been an increase of 60.06% in cases registered and 64.15% in arrests made under IT act since 2012 and the number continues to rise. Similarly, an increase of 73.54% in cases registered and 55.14% in arrests made under IPC since 2012.    Kind of Cyber Threats - Cyber terrorism - Industrial espionage - Phishing - Credit card frauds - Viruses, Spam, etc Basically crimes that are computer related and facilitated crimes.   Education A candidate who aspires to be a cyber lawyer needs to study more that what his basic law degree offers by undergoing training in internet processes, and understanding technicalities of computers, communication devices and the internet space. There are many short-term online certification courses that range from 6 months to a year for people who want to be consultants or are existing lawyers. These courses are tightly-packed to give you the basic understanding of cyber laws. Institutes India INDIAN LAW INSTITUTE, Delhi www.ili.ac.in Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning www.scdl.net Asian School of Cyber Laws www.asianlaws.org International Forensic Sciences Education Department www.ifs.edu.in   These courses range from Rs. 3,000 to Rs 10,000 for the entire course duration. If you are a lawyer, these kinds of courses will aid you in exploring cyber law. However, if you belong to a non-legal background, you may become a consultant or an adviser to a company. Legal Education As a cyber lawyer, there is great opportunity to support IT and to make the best of the opportunity, particularly because of the rise on technology and use of the internet. The field also needs new talent to make laws and execute them. If you are interested in making a career as a Cyber Lawyer, you will need to be trained in specialized education related to the field.  To step into the legal arena as a Cyber Lawyer, the first step is to at least possess a Bachelor’s degree in Cyber Law. Furthermore, post the degree, you will have to successfully clear national-level exam to obtain the license to practice. Law Schools in India National Law School of India University (NLSIU), Bengaluru         www.nls.ac.in/           Campus Law Centre, University of Delhi http://clc.du.ac.in/ National Law University, Delhi www.nludelhi.in ILS Law College, Pune www.Ilslaw.wordpress.com Amity Law School, Delhi www.amity.edu Symbiosis Society’s Law College, Pune www.symlaw.ac.in NALSAR University www.nalsar.ac.in Gujarat National Law University www.gnlu.ac.in/ National Law Institute University (NLIU), Bhopal www.nliu.ac.in/ Government Law College, Mumbai  http://glcmumbai.com/   The course fees for a law degree vary from college to college and therefore proper research into the course curriculum, affiliation and fee structure should be carried out before taking admissions. Abroad Harvard Law School, Us www.hls.harvard.edu Stanford Law School, US https://law.stanford.edu/ Georgetown University, US www.law.georgetown.edu London School of Economics and Political Science, UK www.lse.ac.uk University of Southern California, US www.usc.edu University of New South Wales, Australia www.unsw.com University of Birmingham www.birmingham.ac.uk California University of Pennsylvania www.calu.edu   Career  As a Cyber Law expert/ or a Cyber lawyer, there are many opportunities that you can have apart from the legal firms and court-rooms – lawyer, legal advisor or assistant. You can also lend your talent to IT firms, police department, business houses, public and private organisations, education and many more. What are the job roles? The starting salary of a cyber lawyer can be around Rs.7.5 lakh-Rs.9 lakh per year.   Challenges As cyber law is a new profession, there are bound to be several challenges. - Constant updating of knowledge, devices and news - Know-how of different technologies - Lack of role-models - Keep up with changing and upgraded laws - Performance based work environment The biggest challenge of a Cyber Lawyer is the immense hard work and patience that is required for the job. An eye for detail and an inherent understanding of technology are the important qualities that make a successful cyber laywer.

The Lawmen at Sea: Opportunities in Maritime Law

The Lawmen at Sea: Opportunities in Maritime Law : Maritime law is the law which governs the seas of the countries. The coastal waters of the countries have a set of laws that major shipping companies and other nations need to follow, which are in turn put in place by the Maritime Act. The legal practice arena of India is highly competitive already and the law colleges keep adding newer batches of young lawyers every year. It is an exclusive legal practice line that lets you carve your own niche with limited competition.   The job description of a maritime lawyer is to deal with various sorts of issues that fall under the purview of the maritime law, to be tried fairly in the court jurisdiction of the coasts of a country. While it sounds fascinating, fighting for maritime law, it can involve pretty mundane but essential jobs, issues that are away from the fascinating to that which are highly controversial and important. The duties make up activities like handling any legal matters which are relevant to ships and shipping companies registered in India. Currently there are 10 maritime States across the country. There is a steady increase in demand for skilled professionals in all the diverse areas related to the sector of maritime. A lawyer practicing maritime law will be required to perform his/ her duties at the best capacity possible because even the mundane most legal miscalculation can cost your client dearly, in effect tarnishing your reputation too. A successful maritime lawyer will be able to make a big salary, albeit burning the midnight oil. Maritime law refer to many laws of other branches like civil, administrative, criminal etc.  and norms of International public and private law   Career Path     Institutes India A maritime lawyer has to pursue the usual legal courses, and while pursuing the degree, get a specific specialisation in maritime law. National Law University, Bangalore www.nls.ac.in  Nalsar, Hyderabad www.nalsar.ac.in  National Law Institute University, Bhopal www.nliu.com  National Law University, Delhi www.nludelhi.ac.in  Indian Maritime University  www.imu.edu.in Gujarat National Law Univeristy, Gujarat – Short Course http://www.gnlu.ac.in Symbiosis Law College, Pune – Short Course www.symlaw.ac.in National University Of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi www.nuals.ac.in You should have a good understanding of various subjects like the national Maritime law, law of the sea, laws regarding carriage of goods by sea, international sale of goods, maritime insurance and extensive knowledge and solid foundation in the law of Contracts. The courses also cover another large spectrum of laws like arbitration, environmental laws, piracy, legislation drafting, to name a few.   Studying LLM is not usually needed, but a higher education usually is a sign of specialized knowledge, which can prove beneficial, especially when companies in India lack good specialized maritime lawyers. The lack of educational infrastructure and lack of good guides to teach the subject, the Indian maritime legal entity is yet to develop strongly. Even today, International lawyers, especially British maritime lawyers are very sought after when it comes to arbitrations by shipping companies. Colleges abroad According to United Nations There are three categories regarding maritime law - National Maritime Law - International Public Law Maritime - International Private Law Maritime While the first one is studied in respective countries, the latter two are matters of international bodies. These laws were set in 1982 after years of deliberation by the United Nations in what came to be regarded as United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982. There are colleges who teach international maritime law and the law of their own waters. International Maritime Law Institute, Malta www.imli.org ROLIN-JAEQUEMYNS INTERNATIONAL LAW INTSTITUTE GHENT, Belgium www.grili.ugent.be University of Nottingham, UK www.nottingham.ac.uk University of Stockholm, Sweden http://www.su.se/ Tulane University Law School, New Orleans, USA www.law.tulane.edu University College London, UK www.ucl.ac.uk National University of Singapore http://www.nus.edu.sg/  Swansea University, UK www.swansea.ac.uk/ Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands www.eur.nl University of Southampton, UK Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands www.southampton.ac.uk   Career Post the degree, maritime lawyers find work at ship-owning companies, insurance companies, P&I clubs, law firms, advisory positions in governments, port authorities and any other institution that fall under either private or public sector and deals with maritime and transport law. There are very few maritime legal firms in India and even out of that, most are based out of Mumbai. There are ten different coastal jurisdictions across the country. However each district, like Ahmedabad, Cochin, etc. deal with their own marine legalities separately. However, no such law applies to Mumbai. Its jurisdiction spans the entire country. While litigations are seldom carried out, when they are carried out, they are usually carried out on huge quantity of goods which are mostly worth crores. Maritime lawyers are also need to represent parties undertaking proceedings on the arrest or release of a maritime vessel, retrieving fees or asking for compensation from vessel owners in event of an accident, collision or sinking. Apart from this, the maritime lawyers need to look into varied amount of matters like evaluating the liability of ferrying goods or the environmental case of exploiting fish stocks in the sea. As an apprentice, a maritime lawyer will earn somewhere between Rs10,000 to Rs25,000 in the starting. But the salary increases as valid experience and time is invested. If you survive and more importantly excel at Maritime law you can take home high rewards. Reputed maritime advocates usually charge at least Rs 1.5 lakh per hearing session in various high courts and/ or the Supreme Court of India. The scope of maritime practice is increasing in Asia as the centre of the shipping industry shifts to the many countries present in this reason. Ports like Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Singapore are the world’s busiest ports thanks to high volume of shipping. According to the World Shipping Council, Chinese ports account for seven out of the top ten ports in the world.  With increase in the industry, the disputes in the sector are also growing, with an immediate need for more dispute handlers – the maritime lawyers and at good salaries. Necessary Skills   - You need to know your acts – Acts like the Merchant Shipping Act, Admiralty Act and the standard laws in marine laws of various countries across the world - The laws of the ‘Dry Land’ laid down by individual states and nation that you practice on - Proper knowledge of the laws laid down by the International Maritime Organisation as well as the “dry land” laws laid down by individual states or nations in which one may practise.  - should have understanding of other basic international laws - Ability to work at odd hours. Maritime litigation takes place with various types of people and in different countries. Therefore a maritime lawyer should be able to travel light and also be willing to work odd hours according to international time zones. - Excellent arbitrations skills are a must. -  You need to be very attentive as well as insightful because maritime law is a specialised area and the stakes are high

The EPIC-urean Journey in the Foods and Beverages services

The EPIC-urean Journey in the Foods and Beverages services : FnB department is the heart of the hospitality industry, with one of the largest department as food and beverage quality is the yard-stick which measures success for the establishment.  Though all FnB services primarily revolve around gastronomical pleasures, acute knowledge of management, finances, inventory and hospitality are of utmost importance. According to a recent FICCI Grant Thornton report "Unlocking the potential in the food and beverage services sector",  the F&B (food and beverage) market in India is worth Rs 2.04 lakh crore, presently. Further insights from the report state that there is a huge scope for brand and chains of both Indian and MNC brands as there is yet very less penetration in the space. That teamed with the advent of entrepreneurs to create new restaurant concepts built around specific themes as made a career in FnB services, an enticing one. As adventurous as it sounds, FnB services is a fast-paced environment which is full of challenges and is highly competitive. Apart from hotels and restaurants, FnB services are an important facet to all hospitality organizations like, railways, airlines, cruise liners, corporate canteens and other allied industries. Education FnB is a specialization under Hospitality Management. There are courses varying from 6 months certificate course to four-year Bachelors course especially as Cooks, Bakers, FnB Management, Operations Managers, etc. with options to pursue specialized masters too. All courses require candidates to have passed 10+2 with a minimum of 50% result with excellent command on English. The leading colleges also have their own entrance test, group discussions and interviews for admissions. While checking for suitable colleges, it is advisable to check affiliations, course structure, specializations and feedback from previous students.     Career Path   Institutes India Oberoi Centre of Learning and Development - Delhi  www.oberoihotels.com Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) – Mumbai www.ihmctan.edu Welcomgroup Graduate School of Hotel Administration (WGSHA) – Manipal www.manipal.edu Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) -  Delhi  www.ihmpusa.net Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) – Aurangabad www.ihma.ac.in  Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) – Bangalore www.ihmbangalore.com Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) – Chennai www.ihmchennai.org Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) – Kolkata www.ihmkolkata.com Christ College – Bangalore www.christuniversity.in Sophia’s Polytechnic College, Mumbai http://haft.sophiapolytechnic.com/   Hospitality education in India is not very expensive ranging from Rs. 15,000 for short-term courses to Rs 3.5 lakh for an entire three year course, excluding lodging and other necessities. However, hospitality education in India has always been a subject of much debate, mostly the not so positive kind. Developing employable talent with sync to the needs of the industry has always been a challenge, but lately there are slight reforms to put innovative practices in place to ensure the same. Abroad Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, Switzerland http://www.ehl.edu/ Glion Institute of Higher Education, Switzerland http://www.glion.edu/ Les Roches, International School of Hotel Management, Switzerland http://www.lesroches.edu/ Cornell University, USA https://www.cornell.edu/ Emirates Academy of Hospitality Management  http://www.emiratesacademy.edu/ Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, Spain http://www.lesroches.es/ Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom https://www.brookes.ac.uk/ Blue Mountain International Hotel Management School, Australia http://www.bluemountains.edu.au/ Hotel School, France http://www.vatel.fr/ César Ritz Colleges, Le Bouveret, Switzerland http://www.cesarritzcolleges.edu/   The courses are carved with the best industry standards and students are placed in the best hotels around the world, although placement isn’t guaranteed and it is an expensive affair. For specific fee structures it is advisable to write to them. Although hospitality education’s most popular schools are in Europe, the United States and the United Kingdom; other countries such as Australia, Canada and South East Asian countries like Malaysia, China, the Philippines and the Middle East are soon gaining popularity. Career The food and beverage service industry is a large one to say the least. From a waiter to a foods and beverages director, FnB has it all.  The profession requires strong managerial standards to overlook hygiene and training, inventory and staff management, culinary inventions and predictability as well as superior marketing skills. The jobs vary according to each individual’s hospitality acumen and strong points. While chefs and Fnb Managers have been a favorite amongst epicurean geniuses, lately careers as Bar Tenders, Dessert Chefs, Chocolatiers, etc are seeing steep rises thanks to the high demand, glamour and high returns associated with them. Salary According to Payscale.com a Food and Beverage Manager on an average earns approximately Rs 7 lakh a year. While there is a steep increase in salary for the first five to ten years, post that there is stagnancy in the pay scale unless you have been appointed at a strategic managerial position. Responsibilities in FnB service Management in diversity - Manage and work with a diverse staff from chefs to waiters to kitchen staff to cleaners An excellent communicator Passion of foods, beverages and customer service with the knowledge of the latest trends food and beverage trends Problem solving attitude Excellent organizational and inventory skills – knowing which area requires more attention and which products are good for your operations A numbers person - without math skills, you can't manage your food, beverage and labour costs. Perks of FnB services Enjoy gourmet food everyday Wine tasting and cocktail drinks High energy role Happy customers Opportunity to connect with people from all walks of life Pains of FnB Services No Such Thing As 9 To 5 Highest work load on holidays Out of the ordinary events most of the days – overcapacity, delay in orders , cold-storage broke down, customer complaints, etc   The key point to remember in an FnB service is that perseverance, positive enthusiasm and quality service pay handsomely. There are many cases where service boys have risen to the post of an FnB director; small-time chefs have become international sensations and FnB managers becoming United Nations officials overseeing FnB in many international head quarters. Meanwhile, it also said that F&B sector is crippled with issues as high real estate costs, licenses and multiples taxes. In addition, lack of quality infrastructure and shortage of adequate skilled manpower are hampering the growth of sector here in India too.  

The Curious Case of a Statistician

The Curious Case of a Statistician : The life of a statistician is an exciting as well as a versatile one, as the analysis of numbers is required in every single field out there. You can research along with psychology surveys or you can even tap into the number of trees in a rainforest. Statistics is a whole different world than its scary parent Math. It may as well be the coolest job you never heard of, or have you? While in olden days statisticians were also known as economists, mathematicians, scientists or a qualitative researcher. The ‘data hungry’ modern world also calls them business analysts, risk analysts, data scientists and quality analysts. While Math deals with data in its purest forms, statistics explores the voluminous data (digital or otherwise) for finding information and knowledge. A statistician, using statistical methods, discovers numbers and percentages and creates valuable information that is adequately supported by a summary of data and findings. Today, with a degree in statistics, your opportunities are boundless. Work with high-tech companies like Google, LinkedIn; banking and financial companies like Axis Bank, ICICI Bank or research firms like Deloitte, McKenzie.  Eligibility To apply to any Bachelors program for statistics, one must have cleared 10+2 with Math and must have attained a minimum of 50%. An affinity towards numbers and a quest for correlation is a must. Math concepts need to be thorough since statistical education heavily revolves around it. Studying Statistics A Bachelor in Statistics is offered by both the education streams - Arts and Science. B.A in Statistics deals with applied statistics and other subjects like sample survey, elementary interference, etc; which are best suited for the fields of Economics, research scholars, data analysts, and academics. B.Sc in Statistics focuses primarily on Mathematical Statistics and Computer oriented statistical methods. It is an extensive program that not only teaches you quantitative analysis, probability and inferences and so on, but also teaches programming languages like C, C++ and financial accounting. A B.Sc graduate can work as a statistician in various sectors like technology, marketing, finance and insurance sector, IT sector, banking sector, and so on. Career Path     To advance your career in statistics though, is of no easy means. Statisticians have to constantly develop more skills and knowledge in order to climb the career hierarchy. Masters in statistics and even a PhD in the subject are preferred for high-placed positions world-wide. Top ten colleges in India Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore www.isibang.ac.in Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi www.isid.ac.in St Xavier's College, Mumbai www.xaviers.edu Loyola College, Chennai www.loyolacollege.edu Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta www.isical.ac.in IIT, Kanpur www.iitk.ac.in CR Rao Institute of Advanced Statistics, Hyderabad www.crraoaimscs.org Indian Agriculture Statistics Research Institute, Delhi www.iasri.res.in National Institute of Medical Statistics, Delhi www.nims-icmr.nic.in International Institute of Population Studies, Mumbai www.iipsindia.org     Fee structure The Indian Statistical Institute doesn’t have tuition fees for its students, except the sponsored ones. Students also earn stipends, fellowships and grants if their performance is exceptional. In other colleges, the entire course fees can go up to Rs. 2 lakh. Indian education in statistics is developing at a fast rate to match up with the world standard but its lack of infrastructure and the lack of a multi-disciplinary approach hinder the process. It has great value within country but employment scopes outside of India with an Indian degree can prove to be tough. Study Abroad Studying statistics abroad can offer opportunities to obtain different perspectives, vast knowledge, and skills. As compared to the Indian scenario, the courses abroad are more research oriented, in sync with the current industry needs and advanced to the needs of the rapidly increasing data world. The opportunities to interact with multi-disciplinary faculties create a different outlook of the data. A degree from a prestigious college abroad, enhances a career in the international market place. Stanford University, USA www.stanford.edu Harvard University, USA www.harvard.edu University of California, USA www.berkeley.edu Georgia Institute of Technology, USA www.gatech.edu Imperial College London, UK www.imperial.ac University of Cambridge, UK www.cam.ac.uk National University of Singapore (NUS) www.nus.edu.sg The University of Tokyo, Japan www.u-tokyo.ac.jp The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China www.ust.hk The University of Melbourne, Australia  www.unimelb.edu.au   Studying abroad not only opens you to various cultures and knowledge, it also opens the right kind of opportunities to exceptional students. However to study outside India, the investment varies from Rs. 30 lakh to Rs. 50 lakh depending on which country and which institute you seek admission in.   Career and Salaries The government sector in India has many employment opportunities, but none that pay more than 10 lakh per annum at the end of the career. Working for a private company however, is a very lucrative career. Working in firms like Google, Mckenzie, Morgan Stanley, etc can easily guarantee between 5 lakh per annum to 10 lakh per annum. The Indian Statistical Institute students have reportedly been placed at 15 to 18 lakh an annum too. Mastery over SAS assures you a higher pay in the industry. Statistics applies to most of the professions because by reading the numbers, statisticians work on solving problems related to environment, agriculture, social, economic, financial, etc. There’s a good possibilities that you can apply statistics in whatever field you’re interested in. Marketing Statistics deciphers and understands consumer tastes and preferences, which can be a huge help in marketing products effectively. They study numbers and analyze data to guide the marketing strategies – marketing forecast, demand and supply, deciding the target audience, and so on. Analyst With the advent of big data and other tools, statistician or political analyst with the government, a sport analyst or a data scientist with leading companies, you can try it all. International Development Development organization studies the data with the help of statisticians and other experts, to decide where and how aid is to be allocated to help fight poverty, illness or conflict. Statisticians contribute in healthcare as they decipher the correlation of various ailments in the population and try to find the reason behind it’s incidence in the population. Perks of a Statistician The profession of a statistician is as diverse as the person chooses to make it. There are many statisticians who do not realize how vast the field is and eventually end up limiting themselves; while there are others who think that the sky is the limit and apply their knowledge in the most interesting fields. - It is a higher-than-average job in many countries like US, UK, Singapore and a lucrative career in India too - It is multi-disciplinary – you can work with politicians, psychologists, agriculturists, as well as in the jungles in Africa - Every problem is unique – and there needs to be creative ways to find a solution. Pains of Statistics - In the private sector, deadlines are dear and the job is taxing. - Need to get a PhD for academics and other research positions. - Desk bound job  

Get up, Stand up for your Rights: Career in Human Rights

Get up, Stand up for your Rights: Career in Human Rights : Human Rights are the universal laws which grant the utmost necessities to humans – like the right to healthy food, right to clean water, freedom of movement and speech, and freedom from slavery and discrimination. Human Rights are the source from which all other laws flow. While many don’t know, Human Rights are the source of inspiration for the constitutions of many countries. India itself is one of those nations, whose founding fathers drew heavily from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to make the largest democracy in the world. However, until recently only the elite – international lawyers, diplomats and statesmen were concerned with the study of Human Rights. However, today the field is opening up to the masses. More and more people in today’s world are starting to recognize how Human Rights provide a support base in their struggle against injustice and inequality. Influential movements such as environment and climate protection, women and child rights, safe-guarding of minorities and natives, their culture and migration, even wars draw strength from the all-enveloping Human Rights. Ironically, since Human Rights violations such as wars, women and child safety, atrocities on minorities are the rise, the job opportunities in Human Rights are also increasing   Education Required The Indian education system has only recently begun to promote human rights. A good school is necessary because as of yet, there isn’t a common syllabus or an approach which is decided by national bodies. Therefore students interested in the subject need to do diligent research and consider a few factors while looking for a school: -  What kind of Human Rights curriculum and modules do they offer? Talk to students who have passed out from these schools and inquire about aspects such as their teaching approach -  A course is only as good as the teacher who teaches, or so they say. See the kind of work the teachers or professors have done in the area, the researches they have been a part of, the papers they have published - Look for NGO and international body affiliations with the college and inquire about the various areas where they have their internships. While Human Rights studies are purely conceptual and academic in nature, the practical applications of these laws and their limitations are only recognized on the field as an intern, officer or an activist. - Figure out the kind of course you want to study. There are certification sources, diplomas, bachelors and masters degree. Before undertaking a course, chart out the purpose for perusal of the course.   Eligibility Diploma, certification and under-graduate courses accept students with successful attempts in 10+2 with minimum of 50% marks. Colleges offering Masters Degree however prefer students with a background in sociology, humanities or law.   Diploma in Human Rights Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) www.ignou.ac.in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University, Gujarat www.baou.org University of Madras – Institute of Distance Education www.unom.ac.in Ramjas College, Delhi http://www.ramjascollege.edu/ Department of Adult, Continuing Education & Extension, Faculty of Social Sciences, Delhi.   http://dacee.du.ac.in/     A short-term course in Human Rights adds to the knowledge pool. The courses vary from 3 months to 6 months.  The investment in short-term courses isn’t high and largely remains around Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 5,000 for the entire course duration. Bachelor of Arts in Human Rights Studies A Bachelor of Arts degree in Human Rights emphasizes on academic research and analysis, issues like law, social justice, conflict resolution and dignity. These programs are interdisciplinary, from history to philosophy, from law to literature and various research methodologies. Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi www.jnu.ac.in Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu www.annamalaiuniversity.ac.in  In some universities, human rights education is part of sociology, economics, and modern Indian history. MA in Human Rights A master's program in Human Rights can be pursued after successful completion of a BA course in political science, sociology, social work and law. A masters’ degree will explore subjects like history, philosophy, culture, geography, various laws and movements, research and advocacy in depth. Jamia Millia Islamia University, Delhi www.jmi.ac.in Loyola College, Tamil Nadu www.loyolacollege.edu Andra University, AP www.andhrauniversity.edu.in Don Bosco University, Assam www.dbuniversity.ac.in   A Masters of Arts degree in India isn’t an expensive affair. The investment is anywhere between Rs. 30,000 per year to Rs. 50,000 per year. Human Rights education alone may not guarantee a career. While it is an upcoming subject, it hasn’t yet reached a stage where it is fully comprehensive by its own.  Studying Human Rights without a background in social work, political science or even law may not get you a job directly. Abroad While Human Rights education is on a nascent stage across the world, foreign universities have had more expertise on the subject. The departments are active and robust, engaged in research and give a chance to interact with leading Human Rights professors in the world. London School of Economics, UK www.lse.ac.uk University of Roehampton, UK www.roehampton.ac.uk University of San Francisco, USA www.usfca.edu Fort Hays State University Graduate School, USA www.fhsu.edu Alice Salomon University Of Applied Sciences, Germany www.ash-berlin.eu Sciences Po, France www.sciencespo.fr European University Viadrina, Germany www.europa-uni.de Carlos Iii University of Madrid, Spain www.gu.se University Of Gothenburg, Sweden www.gu.se   A Masters’ degree from a leading international school is a big advantage to get the right international opportunities but be careful of the cost. These graduate schools are expensive. Career Opportunities Starting a career in Human Rights is a challenge; it is a complex field and is also a very competitive profession, particularly in today’s economy. Firstly there are vast scopes – in NGOS, international organizations, journalism, research institutes and schools to name a few. Apart from the competition, there are other things to consider too – Will you be willing to travel into sensitive areas, working with high emotions, work in unfamiliar and/or rough environments and face opposition? The Salaries start from Rs. 15,000 but from there on work and your passion are the only guarantors to the kind of income you earn. Knowledge alone isn’t necessary to succeed; to advance ahead you need the dedication, courage and a supportive network. However with the right approach you can be part of strong international agencies like the UN and its other agencies, Amnesty International, and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. But the truest earnings in Human Rights career is that you get to touch lives across the globe, bring about positive changes and stand up for what you think is right.  

Intellectual Property Law: The emerging dimension of law

Intellectual Property Law: The emerging dimension of law : Innovativeness needs protection from being illegitimately used by the third party. Intellectual property law serves as the protector of the originality with immense career opportunities. Intellectual property can be defined as the original property that belonged to the person or the organization where it has been created. The Intellectual Property Law is laws that that protect the intellectual property rights. They are the legislations that grant original rights and ownership to the creator. The area offers great career opportunities for individuals who are inclined towards creativity and aimed to preserve and respect the originality of ideas. Intellectual Property Law is an emerging career in the twenty first century with several job opportunities in public and private sectors.   Eligibility Intellectual property law relates to enforcement of laws to ensure rights related to securing inventions, designs and other creativities of mind. In provides rights and protection over the intangible assets. The field therefore requires in-depth knowledge about the laws related and the manner of their implementation and right interpretation. The sector has several opportunities, but only for well qualified and skilled people. After 12th, five year graduation programme for law is available and it B. Sc. LL.B. Thus student from any filed can pursue their career. After graduation in science and mathematics field, a three year law degree, LL.B. can be done. Students aspiring to study ahead can undertake a two year master’s programme, LL. M, after graduation. Emphasis is also upon diploma courses so as to attain specialization in the field. Postgraduate Diploma in Intellectual Property Law and Practice and Diploma in Intellectual Property Law and Management are also present in the field to enhance skills and intellect regarding the subject. Post graduate courses such as Masters in Philosophy and Doctorate can be done in intellectual property law. India has some of the prestigious law universities that offer courses to highly skilled students. There are 16 prominent National Law Universities, where admission is granted only after qualification of Common Law Aptitude Test (CLAT). The test includes basic mathematics, aptitude, English and general knowledge. Other universities also conduct their respective entrance exams for admission. The tuition fee for the NLU’s is higher as compared to other universities. NLUs are highly prestigious with skilled and advanced libraries and academic facilities. There are only 450 seats available in NLU’s for the students from all across the country. The annual fee structure of NLU’s range from 75000INR to 125000INR.For other Universities, the fees are much less and they range from 7000INR to 30000INR. Foreign universities apart from graduation and post graduation degrees, provide doctoral degree in Jurisprudence (J.S.D.), and Doctor of Comparative Law (D.Comp.L.). The annual fee structure in foreign universities range from 700000INR to 120000INR. Scholarships and fee concessions are available for meritorious students in India and abroad. Career Path                                                                             Institutes India Institutes Courses City Website National Law School of India B.A. LL.B, LLM, M. Phil. Bangalore https://www.nls.ac.in/  West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences - WBNUJS  LL.B, LLM, Doctorate Kolkata http://www.nujs.edu/ National Law University LL.B, LLM, P.G. Doctorate Bhopal https://www.nliu.ac.in/ Indian Institute of Technology LL.B Hons in Intellectual Property Kharagpur http://www.iitkgp.ac.in/topfiles/law.php National Law University, LL.B, LLM, P.G. Diploma in Intellectual Property Law and Practice, Doctorate Delhi http://www.nludelhi.ac.in/   Delhi Faculty of Law LL.B (3 year programme after graduation) Delhi University, Delhi http://law.du.ac.in/   Symbiosis Law School LL.B, LLM, P.G. Diploma Courses Pune http://www.symlaw.ac.in/ Indian Law Society's Law College,  LL.B, LLM, M. Phil., Doctoral ·             Pune https://ilslaw.wordpress.com/ National Law University LL.B, LLM, M. Phil., Doctoral   Jodhpur http://www.nlujodhpur.ac.in/index-main.php National Academy of Legal Studies and Research, LL.B, LLM, M. Phil., Doctoral Hyderabad http://www.nalsar.ac.in/ Faculty of Law, BHU LLB, LLM Banaras http://www.bhu.ac.in/lawfaculty/ Gujarat National Law University LL.B, LLM, M. Phil., Diploma in Intellectual Property Law and Management, Doctoral   Gandhinagar http://www.gnlu.ac.in/     Worldwide Institute Courses City, Country Website Cambridge University Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Cambridge, U.S. https://www.cam.ac.uk/  Harvard University Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Cambridge, Massachusetts, US http://www.harvard.edu/ New York University  Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral, Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D.) New York, US http://www.nyu.edu/   Yale University LLM, J.D. and J.S.D. Yale, US   http://www.yale.edu/   University of California Post-graduation, Doctoral,  J.D. and J.S.D. Berkeley, US http://www.berkeley.edu/ Stanford University Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Stanford, US https://www.stanford.edu/   University of Michigan Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Ann Arbor, U.S. https://www.umich.edu/      Oxford University Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral and Diploma in Intellectual Property Law   U.K https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/  University of Chicago Law School Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Chicago, U.S. http://www.law.uchicago.edu/   Opportunities and Salaries Creativity and imagination have gained wings in the twentieth century. Originality of an idea is gaining importance and hence there emerges a need to protect intellectual property rights.  It has have led to intellectual property law and several job opportunities in this field. A qualified individual in the field of intellectual property law can work in cases related to infringement of rights and liberties related to privacy of the product such as slogans, logos, product names, artwork, movies, books, music and other information. A law graduate, after clearance of the bar association’s exam can practice as a lawyer and work on several cases related to intellectual property law. The lawyers are also hired by several government institutes, private law firms and nonprofit organizations. The major work involves protecting the original rights through Licensing, Patent, Trade Secret, Copyright and Trademark of the product. Other job opportunities in intellectual property law include teachers and lecturers in various renowned universities. Law graduates can prepare for higher posts such as the civil services and judicial services. Journalism publishing of law related books and research papers, and social activists are some of the other opportunities that an intellectual property law educated individual can advance in.  Job profiles in this field are filled with immense hard- work, but pays well when a person through his skills, establish as a capable lawyer. Patent lawyers are in demand and hired by large to small scale companies. Intellectual Property law offers job opportunity in not only Copyright and Patent Law, but also in Chemical, Mechanical, IT, Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Patent Practice. Civil services and judiciary posts can be acquired through qualifying the concerned exams. The salaries depend upon the experience and qualifications. The average pay scale for lawyers range from 8000- 25000 INR per month. In civil services job profiles, the salaries range from 35000- 50000 INR. It is a job that offers prestige, recognition and good pay scales. If you are inclined towards providing justice and preserving the value of intellect, then intellectual property law is the perfect career option. The field aims to provide a legal outlook and protection to innovativeness. It is an extremely broad field and has become an integral part for the economic expansion of the country. Protection of the intellectual property right therefore provides great opportunities for law educated aspirants.

Experiment with diverse career options in Physics

Experiment with diverse career options in Physics : Physics has been one of the most ancient branches of science. This very interesting subject offers a wide range of interesting career opportunities filled with discoveries, experimentations and inventions. Ever wondered why things fall downwards or the reason why we have day and night? Yes, indeed it is due to gravitation and rotations of the earth respectively. But, if you are inclined to dig these puzzles more, and aim to learn about the in-depth study of motion, action and reaction of any movement of objects; Physics is definitely the area of your interest you would want to go into. You do not need to limit yourself to Physics just as a subject of your curriculum, you can explore it deep and advance in a career in Physics. It offers a vast range of diverse opportunities that are exciting, but requires a good command and knowledge in the subject. The study of matter and motion involves every tangible creation in the Universe and hence, the scope of the subject is limitless. Gain expertise in Physics to make your career extremely exciting and filled with knowledge. Since it includes more of experiments, observations and calculations, mastery in this field is required that can be achieved through clear understanding of the concepts and through practice. Once command is grasped in the core concepts, several career options in Physics await to lead you to professional success. Eligibility The subject requires deep study and research. Students passionate about the subject and interested in fields such as the principles of energy, matter and motion must only take up the subject. There is a need for precision and concentration in the subject. After 10th standard, physics, chemistry and mathematics as basic subjects are available for students, if they need to pursue a career in physics. Leading government and private universities provide under-graduate and graduate courses. B.Sc. Honors in Physics followed by Masters and specialization in different branches of physics can be done. Students aspiring to become researchers and physics scientists can further do doctorate in physics. The subject requires theoretical as well as practical knowledge and hence, binds the interests of students. Fee Structure The annual tuition fees in colleges in India range from 8,000 INR to 1, 50,000 INR. For students who want to study abroad, the annual tuition fees begin from 8,00,000 INR. Scholarships are also available for deserving candidates.                                                                                       Top Institutes India College Course City Website   Indian Institute of Science, (IISc     Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate   Bangalore   http://www.iisc.ernet.in   St. Stephens, DU     Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc)   Delhi   http://www.ststephens.edu   Tata Institute of Fundamental Research    Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc)   Mumbai   http://www.tifr.res.in   IITM    Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc)   Madras   https://www.iitm.ac.in     BHU      Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate   Varanasi     http://www.bhu.ac.in Indian Institute of Technology     Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate   Roorkee   http://www.iitr.ac.in   Saha Institute of Nuclear Studies     Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate   Kolkata(West Bengal)   http://www.saha.ac.in/web   College of science and technology   Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate   Visakhapatnam http://www.cst.edu.bt/  National Institute of Technology  Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate Rourkela http://www.nitrkl.ac.in/   IIT Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc), Doctorate Hyderabad http://www.iith.ac.in/   Leading Universities for Doctorate in Physics   World College Course City Website   Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)   Graduation(B.Sc), Post Graduation(M.Sc) Cambridge, Massachusetts, US http://www.bfit.edu ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology   Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Switzerland https://www.ethz.ch/en.html Imperial College London    Graduation, Post-graduation   United Kingdom https://www.imperial.ac.uk/physics   University of Cambridge    Graduation, Post-graduation   United Kingdom www.cam.ac.uk Harvard University Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Cambridge, Massachusetts, US http://www.harvard.edu Stanford University Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral Stanford, US https://www.stanford.edu   California Institute of Technology Graduation, Post-graduation, Doctoral California, U.S. http://www.caltech.edu/   University of Auckland Graduation, Post-graduation   New Zealand www.auckland.ac.nz   Opportunities and Salaries Boundless opportunities are available in physics. Physics graduates can find great career options in both private sectors as well as in public sectors. The basic requirement is graduation for several jobs for posts of technician, assistant researcher, and lab supervisor. There are several eminent organizations such as ISRO (Bangalore), DRDO (Delhi), and VSSC (Kerala) that hire qualified individuals in this field.  Post graduates and doctorates can pursue their career as researchers and scientists. Other job profiles in Physics include lecturers, teachers and academic writers for books in these subjects. Science magazine journalism has also lately provided great career opportunities. Interdisciplinary jobs are also available in atomic research organization, planetariums and other scientific institutes. The scope of physics is multi dimensional, but career can only boosted if a person is well skilled and passionate in this subject. Salaries of teachers and lecturers range from 15,000 INR to 70000 INR per month. For individuals entering in the field of research the salaries begin from 15000 INR. In case of lab assistants, technicians and supervisors, the pay scale range from 7000 INR to 25000 INR. Handsome salaries are available at international firms and research organizations. Hard- work and detailed study about the subject can lead to great career opportunities.              Physics is the basis of science and has tantalized men and women of every age.  If you have a spirit to understand the manner in which things work and scientific experiments are enjoyed, then advance ahead to make physics as your career option. Let the laws of the universe, motion of objects, thermodynamics and motion science accelerate your professional life and make you reach pinnacle of success.  

Railways: A journey to a dynamic career

Railways: A journey to a dynamic career : Railways offers diverse opportunities for individuals with diverse career background. It is a rapidly expanding sector with never a period of recession. Grab an exciting job in the railways and accelerate your career. We all have journeyed through trains and found them fascinating. The long tail running through the forests, mountains, over the bridges and under the tunnels and moves endlessly from one corner to another is nothing less than a wonder. If there is quest to know more, to discover railways from deeper dimensions, accelerate your skills and join such a dynamic system. It is not just hundreds of trains running daily, but a dense system of mechanical, technical organizations and vast infrastructure with precision in management and a community of thousands of employees. The lifeline and the pride of the country, “The Indian Railways” is 150 years long and is the largest network of connectivity as well as huge personnel. It offers job opportunities to thousands of employees with different academic backgrounds and qualifications. Being the second largest commercial employer in the world, the Indian Railways is a golden opportunity for all young aspirants.  What is remarkable about the system is that there is never a recession and it is continuously progressing. Join the Indian Railways for opportunities and a glorified career. Eligibility There are jobs available in railways after tenth and twelfth standards Through the Railway Recruitment Board, selection procedure is done for the several vacancies in different departments. Diploma courses are done by people to enhance their skills and get promotions and pay hikes. The IT wing of the Indian Railways is the Centre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS) and it is Headquatered at New Delhi. It is an autonomous organization and has Regional offices in Kolkata, Secunderabad, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi. CRIS is related to the technical operations in the railway system and it provides multiple opportunities for IT graduates. Students skilled in developing software such as C#, C, C++, Java can apply for these jobs. B-Tech in Computer Science and Electronics can appylt for job opportunities in the technical wing involved in development, maintenance and implementation of the Reservation System, Ticketing System, e-Procurement System, Freight Operations Information System (FOIS) and other IT related wings. Mechanical and Civil Branch graduates can work the engine design and railway track development wings. Engineering Services Examination as well as Civil Services Examination is required to clear for getting jobs at higher posts in the Railways. Graduates in commerce and mathematics can apply for audit and finance department of the railways. Railway Institutes   Indian Railways Institute of Transport Management (IRITM) Professional Training of IRTS Probationalry officers, Appreciation Courses for Probationary Officers (Mid Career Training Programmes, Special Courses) Lucknow http://www.iritm.indianrailways.gov.in/ The Institution of Permanent Way Engineers  Diploma Courses (IT) Pune http://www.ipweindia.com/index.html   Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (IRIMEE)  Training courses for Mechanical & M&C courses Jamalpur (Patna) http://www.irimee.indianrailways.gov.in/   Institute of Rail Transport Rail Transport and Management, Transport, Economics and Management, Multi-modal Transport Courses New Delhi http://www.irt-india.com/   The Indian Railways Institute of Logistics & Materials Management (IRILMM) Diploma Courses New Delhi http://www.irilmm.com/     Several Entrance Exams   Service Examination Qualification Age Limit Indian Railway Service of Engineers ( IRSE ),  Indian Engineering Services  Engineering as graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Service of Electrical Engineers (IREE Combined Engineering Service Examination Engineering as graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers(IRSME)   Combined Engineering Service Examination Engineering as graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Service of Signal Engineers(IRSEE) Combined Engineering Service Examination Engineering as graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Stores Service (IRSS)   Combined Engineering Service Examination Engineering as graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Traffic Service(IRTS)   Civil Services Examination Graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Railway Protection Force   Civil Services Examination Graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS)   Civil Services Examination Graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS)   Civil Services Examination Graduation 21 to 30 years on 1st August   Indian Railway Medical    Service(IRMS)   Combined Medical Services Examination  Medical Degree 21 to 30 years on 1st August  Commercial Apprentice, Assistant Station Master, Traffic Apprentice, Clerk Railway Non Technical Cadre Exam Graduation for Grace B, C jobs 18 to 27 years on 1st August  Railway Recruitment Service Railway Non Technical Cadre Exam Engineering Degree 18 to 27 years on 1st August  Sub Inspectors/ Constables RPF Sub Inspectors/ Constables Exam Intermediate/ 10+2 Science background 20-25 years Sub Inspectors 18-25 years Constables Assistants, Clerk (LDC), Attendant, Driver, Constable, Village Administrative Officer (VAO), Stenographer, Data Entry Operator, Junior Assistants, Peon   Railway Recruitment Examination Intermediate/ 10+2 18 to 25 years       Opportunities in railways The movements of the trains are operated by the operations department and it includes several jobs of inspectors and supervisors at control offices and stations. The qualified candidates are trained for two years at Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration in Mussouri. During the third year, job training followed by clearance of departmental examinations gives a confirmed post as officers Assistant Operations Superintendent (AOS) or as Assistant Commercial Superintendent (ACS) at the Divisional Headquarters. Promotions and experience can lead to the post of Operations Manager or Senior Divisional Commercial Managers and the top most position as Operations or Commercial Chief Managers at Zonal Level. Engineers or technical graduates are appointed at the post of railway officers and have work in fields such as planning, construction, maintenance and installation of railway tracks, buildings and bridges. Individuals can also clear the Indian Railway Service of Engineers (IRSE), Indian Railway Service of Signal Engineers (IRSSE) and Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers (IRSME). The finances and accounts of the railways are handled by large personnel that are appointed through Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS). This service provides opportunities for students with mathematics and accounts background. Finance managers, management students and Chartered Accountants can avail prestigious job opportunities. Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS) provides job opportunities for thousands of officers that are employed in work related to staff welfare activities, recruitment, training, promotion, informing and transfer of staff and other departments’ related activities. Individuals interested in police personnel can work as a para military force through Railway Protection Service. Railways are the largest operating public sector industry in the country and require proper planning for it to flourish. Indian Railway Stores Services deals with the activities related to the five year plan of the railways. Other job opportunities include clerical jobs as that at the ticket counter or Ticket Inspectors. Railways also recruit students after twelfth class and diploma holders at grade C and D posts.   Salaries   The diversity of jobs available in the Railways has different posts and pay scales. Education and experience add to the salary hike. There are four groups D, C, B, A of the railway staff with a different salary structure. After the 6th Pay Commission, the salaries hiked to a great extent.  For the D level the staffs are cleaners, guards and they get 7000 INR at entry level grade pay per month, while for the C group employees, the salaries range from 7730 – 18150 INR per month. For B group officers (technicians, ticket collectors, junior engineers), the salaries range from 21000-30000 INR per month and for the group A officers (IRAS, IRPS, IRSSE) the pay scale range from 46000- 53000 INR per month. Apart from the salaries, the employees are also given perks and bonus. After the seventh pay commission, predicted to be implemented since January 2016, the salaries are estimated to hike by 23.55 percent. Railways are stretched all across with job opening available everywhere in the country. Professionals are also sent abroad for training and skill enhancement programmes. Career in railways is accompanies by handsome salaries, job security and a good professional status. Come and become a part to such a dynamic system let your career travel new heights.  

Exploring the Noblest Profession of All - Teaching

Exploring the Noblest Profession of All - Teaching :   There is no better investment you can make than one in a career in education, which has been referred to as the noblest profession. The demand for highly qualified educators is on the rise and this trend is not at all likely to change in near future. If you bear the passion for teaching, learning and sharing your knowledge with today's youth, intending to make a difference in a child's life, then this profession is for you. Individuals interested in taking up this profession as a career must possess an outgoing personality, are required to be good listeners, have great problem-solving and organizational skills along with strong communication skills to effectively convey their message to the students they would be addressing. The teaching profession requires people who have the conviction to nurture young minds and mold them into something great. Since time immemorial, the profession of teaching has been considered as one of the noblest professions. Educators have always played the role of catalysts for various social changes in society. Mankind has always considered teachers/educators as a boon to the society for they have been the ones responsible for polishing a learner's intellect and aptitude. This profession has always held a proud position in the Indian ethos and milieu. Right from the most famous gurus and ancient teachers like Vashisth and Dronacharya, to preachers like Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Ramanujacharya down to modern day educationists like Dr.Amartya Sen, Shri J.C.Bose and many others, not forgetting our former president Late Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam, teachers/educators have by and large been looked upon as role models and venerated in high esteem by the learners of all age groups. This profession is divided into numerous areas of specializations, each requiring its own method of training and different skill sets. SKILLS REQUIRED  Education sector is a highly specialized field, and hence, requires a lot of comprehensive training to gain expertise in the field. It is taken for granted that anyone and everyone can teach, provided they have some basic knowledge for the subject. The fundamental qualities needed are excellent communication skills along with the ability to inspire confidence, ability to hold the attention of young and dynamic minds and finally, the ability to set an example through deeds and words.   CAREER PATH   COURSES OFFERED Bachelor's in Education (2 years) Master's in Education (2 years) Post Graduate Diploma in Management of Education (1 year) Doctorate of Philosophy (2 years)   HOW MUCH WILL IT COST ME? The fee structure for a B.Ed course could be anywhere between Rs. 10,000 and Rs. 40,000. Many universities also offer the course at much lower fees. Similarly for M.Ed, It ranges between some 25,000-60,000 rupees depending upon the rank and reputation of the institute. Candidates who are not willing to shell out such hefty amounts can take up diploma/certification course in the same colleges or institutes. JOB PROSPECTS 1) Educational Administrators - Principals, Assistant Principals, Directors 2) Teachers- Professors/Lecturer 3) Teachers- Pre-School, Kindergarten, Elementary, Middle and High School 4) Teachers-Special Education 5) Teachers-Assistants and Aides ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITES Educational Administrators- These includes the roles of principal, assistant principal and directors of any institute. They are largely hired to provide instructional leadership to that institute. They oversee the hiring process, working with the teachers evaluating them and help them improve upon their skills, oversee financial aspects of an institution, prepare budgets and reports for the institutes. Lecturers/Professors -This section of teachers mainly consists of university and college faculties, technical education faculties and graduate teaching associates. Their role mainly is to conduct research in their specialized subjects and to instruct and advise the college and university students. Lecturers in commerce, social sciences, foreign languages, sciences, law and physical education requires a post graduate degree in the respected subject from any recognized Indian University or equivalent degree from any foreign university with at least 55% marks can be considered. Eligibility tests like NET are conducted by CSIR, UGC. Professors are eminent scholars who are actively engaged in research and whose work has been appreciated and published, and who also have at least 10 years of experience in postgraduate are selected for the post of professors/principals. Pre-School, Kindergarten, Elementary teachers- Children’s development is largely affected by the presence of preschool, kindergarten, and elementary school teachers. The early image of these teachers can influence and shape the success that children must attain in the later part of their lives, be it at work, personal lives or in schools. Their world would be shaped by what they experience and learn in their early years of education through these teachers. Children at schools are introduced to various subjects like science, language, social studies and maths by this group of teachers. Middle School and High School Teachers- This group of teachers would be dealing with children in 8th-12th The students who earlier studied the subjects with their elementary, pre-school and primary teachers will learn and study the same subjects much in-depth with middle school and high school teachers. These teachers instruct in a single subject like math, language, chemistry, physics or any other main subject. Teachers Special Education- This group of teachers deals with youth and children having a variety of disabilities. This small percentage of special education teachers instruct disabled children about basic life skills and basic literacy lessons. Disabilities might include combined blindness and deafness, traumatic brain injury, language impairments or even emotional disturbance. Teachers Assistants and Aides- This group deals with the main teacher as their assistants and help them complete the secretarial tasks and instructional tasks so that the main teacher gets to spend more time preparing lessons and teaching. They can be termed as paraprofessionals. PAY PACKAGE Remuneration in this field is best offered in government owned colleges and schools. The elementary, pre-school, kindergarten, middle school or higher secondary teachers tend to receive a healthy start-up salary of some 15000-25000 rupees depending upon the class one teaches for. For teaching in universities and colleges one might earn Rs. 40,000 plus, depending upon the work experience and the quality of education one has acquired.   Top 10 Institutes India Rank College City Website URL 1 K.J. Somaiya Comprehensive College of Education, Training and Research Mumbai www.somaiya.edu/bed 2 Bombay Teacher's Training College, Mumbai www.bttc.edu 3 Lady Irwin College Delhi www.ladyirwin.edu.in 4 Andhra University Visakhapatnam www.andhrauniversity.edu 5 Azim Premji University Bangalore http://www.azimpremjiuniversity.edu.in/ 6 Government College of Education Chandigarh www.gcechd.nic.in 7 St. Xaviers College of Education Patna www.sxcepatna.edu.in 8 D.M.College of Teacher Education Imphal www.dmcte.in 9 Kirorimal College of Education Bhiwani www.kmcollegeofeducation.org 10 University Of Pune Pune www.unipune.ac.in   Overseas   Rank College City Website URL 1 Harvard University Cambridge,USA www.harvard.edu 2 Oxford Univeristy Oxford,UK www.ox.ac.uk 3 California Institute of Technology California, USA www.caltech.edu 4  Cornell University New York, USA www.cornell.edu 5 ETH Zurich Zurich, Switzerland www.ethz.ch/en.html 6 Imperial college of London London, UK www.imperial.ac.uk 7 Princeton University Princeton, USA www.princeton.edu 8 Stanford University Stanford, USA www.stanford.edu 9 University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada www.ubc.ca 10 Yale University New Haven,USA www.yale.edu   TO CONCLUDE The importance of this profession cannot be underestimated due to the fact that it inherently ensures that the minds of the pupils are molded in such a way that their future career prospects are up for grabs. It is inherently not so different from a superpower to have the ability to help build a vision for a student, which he/she can be channelized to achieve. This is what makes the profession a noble and worthy one, as it is one which essentially helps in building up other professions by channelizing young minds into them.  

A bird’s eye view of the society: Careers in Sociology

A bird’s eye view of the society: Careers in Sociology : Overview Why are some cultures patriarchal while others are matriarchal? Why is polygamy acceptable in certain societies but not in others? Why are people belonging to certain groups, societies or cultures inclined towards taking up certain professions? What is an ideal society? As a sociologist, you will be able to find out the answers to these and more such pressing questions concerning the world.   What is Sociology all about? Sociology is the study of people in relation to their fellow human beings, and it deals with topics like culture, religion, politics, economics, group dynamics, communication, power, conflict, inter-group behaviour, etc. Sociology tries to understand the behaviour of people at a group-level, rather than at an individual-level. Broadly speaking, the focus of Sociology is on understanding and explaining:   What might create an ideal society How is culture created, and how does it get passed on from one generation to another Similarities and differences among different groups of people Influence of social institutions on individuals     How to get into this Career? A student interested in pursuing a career in sociology can study Humanities at the plus-two level and opt in for Sociology as a subject. After that, a Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in Sociology can enable one for a successful career in this field. Those inclined towards academics and research should pursue MPhil/PhD degree as well.   In India, most universities offer specialised UG and PG courses in the field of Sociology, including, but not limited to, University of Delhi, Delhi; Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi; University of Calcutta, Kolkata; Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi; University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad; Jadavpur University, Kolkata, among several others.    You can find out more about these universities here:   University of Delhi, Delhi  http://www.du.ac.in/du/ Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi  http://jmi.ac.in/ University of Calcutta, Kolkata  http://www.caluniv.ac.in/ Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi  http://www.jnu.ac.in/ University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad  http://www.uohyd.ac.in/ Jadavpur University, Kolkata  http://www.jaduniv.edu.in/   Skills and Competencies You must be someone who is comfortable in reading extensively about societies around the world and must display a sense of empathy and curiosity towards them. You must be a critical-thinker with the ability to conduct research effectively. You must also have a flair in writing and public speaking for effectively communicating your research findings with interested groups.   Career Opportunities As a graduate or post-graduate in Sociology, you can find meaningful career opportunities in the academia, non-government sector and even in the corporate sector. You can become a professor of the subject at a university level and continue exploring the subject by doing research. Sociologists are much in demand in non-government organisations, including Oxfam, UNO, WWF, among other prominent names. These days, many corporate organisations hire students from a sociology background for CSR as well as market-research jobs. Besides these sectors, there are opportunities galore for sociologists in the research and publishing industries as well.   Cost Involved The cost of pursuing a UG or PG degree program in Sociology will depend on the institute you are pursuing it from. As government colleges are highly subsidized, the cost of pursuing the course from a government college will be very low whereas private colleges may be costlier. All in all, pursuing a course in Sociology may cost you anywhere from Rs 15,000 to several lakhs depending on the institute you pursue it from.   Talking Money: Remuneration As there are many different kinds of jobs that open up for you as a graduate in Sociology, your remuneration will depend on the kind of work you do. If you begin your career in the academic field, you can except to earn around Rs 40000 or more per month as an Assistant Professor. A job with an NGO can pay you anything between Rs 15000 to Rs 100000 depending upon the organisation and your role. A job with a corporate as a CSR or marketing professional may earn anywhere close to Rs 25000 to Rs 60000 per month.